Publication Options

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200 150 100 50 48 198 2021 2022 48 198 2021 2022
  • 34
  • 197
  • 48
  • 198

About Publication Options

Discover how many authors have chosen to publish open access in this journal.


Year TOTAL PUBLISHED Subscription Open access articles
2022 246 198 48
2021 231 197 34


Publishing open access

If an author has chosen to publish open access, their article will be made immediately and freely available upon publication on ScienceDirect, in perpetuity, with the author’s chosen user license. Publication is typically funded by an upfront payment made by authors, their institution or funding bodies, commonly known as an Article Publishing Charge (APC). In some journals publication is subsidised by a third party and therefore no upfront payment is required.

Publishing under the subscription model

If an author has chosen to publish under the subscription model, their article will be made available on ScienceDirect and will be accessible to the subscribing institutions and individuals, which fund the publication of the article.

Elsevier also makes research published under the subscription model completely free to access in specific situations, including during health emergencies, to patients and caregivers, and to institutions in low- and middle-income countries.

We never charge for the same article twice: When calculating subscription prices, we do not take into account growth in open access articles. For more information, please see here.

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